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Baystate's Learner-Manager-Teacher Model

Learn it and do it before teaching it.

To simultaneously maximize both education and quality patient care there must be a proper balance between supervision and autonomy in resident education.


As you gain competence in our Learner-Manager-Teacher Model, you will progress from a high degree of supervision to an increasing amount of autonomy. In addition, you will develop a partnership with your colleagues and faculty, an increased awareness of safety and quality, and the skills necessary to become a life-long learner.

Learner Stage (PGY1)

As a Learner, you will:

  • build a solid foundation of clinical skills
  • become competent to manage common medical problems, stabilize critical patients, and know when to call for help.

As a brand new physician-in-training,  you will benefit from a high degree of supervision as you learn basic skills. 

Learners have two layers of supervision: their Teaching resident and their Attending physician. This provides the back-up needed to provide safe, high quality care to patients, while also guiding you to identify learning needs that are in the Johari Window (i.e. what you don’t know you don’t know).

Manager Stage (PGY2)

As a Manager, you will:

  • make independent decisions on all aspects of patient care, from initial evaluation to discharge summary
  • increase your competency to manage patients with more complex medical problems

I had to learn about each case on Up-to-Date and from articles. I read more as a Manager and by the end of the month, I was a totally different person. I knew where to look, what to do.  I loved it."

- Resident Manager

As a Manager, you are now much more capable of independent practice and can be granted greater independence in clinical decision-making without compromising patient care.

Managers work 1-on-1 with their supervising Attendings in a collegial and collaborative relationship. You will also share a call schedule, teaching sessions and cross-coverage with a team of four Manager peers.

The Manager stage avoids the anxiety residents typically feel at the end of their first year by eliminating the responsibility of taking on the overseeing and teaching of interns.

Teacher Stage  (PGY3)

As a Teacher, you will:

  • practice and advance your teaching skills
  • supervise a pair of Learners

As a Teacher, you will gain more autonomy and develop leadership skills as you supervise and teach Learners in partnership with your supervising Attending.

In addition, the very act of teaching reinforces the knowledge, skills and attitudes involved in patient care. And, supervising a pair of Learners gives you needed exposure to a broader scope of clinical problems.